It is very unusual to find oil and gas alone in the ground; however, oil and gas could be found together in the same well reservoir or the gas with several accompanied impurities as the presence of water (wet effect), sulphur (sour effect), hydrocarbon liquids (condensate) and others; thus processing is deemed essential to convert this raw material into useful valuable products at the market required specifications.

Crude hydrocarbons usually undergo an initial processing offshore and once it is received at the onshore terminals, the crude oil will pass on to the refinery and the gas to the gas processing plant for further processing. Maintaining of flow of oil and gas from the well to the reception facility is termed as “Flow Assurance”; flow assurance is a multi-discipline activity includes assurance of product specifications (as octane percentage, API quality grade…), design condition (as pressure, temperature…), hydraulic analysis and pressure required, thermal profile and insulation, and investigation of potential problems during flow (as scale formation, hydrates, wax, sand…).


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